Camera Angles and Shots

Meaning of aperture, shutter speed, ISO, and depth of field (DOF)

Aperture – The aperture is a small set of blades in the lens that controls how much light will enter the camera.  The blades create an octagonal shape that can be widened (we photogs call it shooting “wide open”), or closed down to a small hole

Shutter speed – The shutter is a small “curtain” in the camera that quickly rolls over the image sensor (the digital version of film) and allows light to shine onto the imaging sensor for a fraction of a second. The longer the shutter allows light to shine onto the image sensor, the brighter the picture since more light is gathered.  A darker picture is produced when the shutter moves very quickly and only allows light to touch the imaging sensor for a tiny fraction of a second. The duration that the shutter allows light onto the image sensor is called the shutter speed, and is measured in fractions of a second.  So a shutter speed of 1/2 of a second will allow more light to touch the image sensor and will produce a brighter picture than a shutter speed of 1/200 of a second.

ISO – the level of sensitivity of your camera to available light. It is typically measured in numbers, a lower number representing lower sensitivity to available light, while higher numbers mean more sensitivity. More sensitivity comes at the cost though, as the ISO increases, so does the grain/noise in the images. Examples of ISO: 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600.

Depth of field (DOF) – Is the front to back zone of a photograph in which the image is razor sharp. As soon as an object (person, thing) falls out of this range, it begins to lose focus at an accelerating degree the farther out of the zone it falls; e.g. closer to the lens or deeper into the background.




Differentiate the purpose of camera angles and shots.

Camera shot is the amount of space that is seen in one shot or frame. Camera shots are used to demonstrate different aspects of a film’s setting, characters and themes. As a result, camera shots are very important in shaping meaning in a film. Reviewing the examples on the right hand side of this page should make the different camera shots clearer.

Camera angle used to position the viewer so that they can understand the relationships between the characters. These are very important for shaping meaning in film as well as in other visual texts.

Camera shot Camera angle
Use to demonstrate different aspects of setting, themes and characters. Use to position the viewer so that they can understand the relationships between the characters. These are very important for shaping meaning in film as well as in other visual texts.





Teacher Centered vs Student Centered

Differentiate between Teacher Centered vs Student Centered learning strategies.

Teacher Centered learning Student Centered learning
No individual accountability Individual accountability
Responsible for oneself Responsible for each other
Very passive Very active
Follow the course profile Select and divide the lesson for group work
Try to keep the student in their own seats Arrange the classroom and assign the work
Provide detailed information Facilitator of learning


Advantages and limitations of learning method

Method Advantage Limitation


  • Emphasis on learning instead of teaching.
  • Participation by everyone in the class.
  • Development of democratic way of thinking.
  • Training in reflective thinking.
  • Training in self-expression.
  • Spirit of tolerance is inculcated.
  • Learning is made interesting.


  • Discussion method is not appropriate for all the topics.
  • It can be used only to students who have some basic knowledge in the topic.
  • some of the students may feel shy or reluctant to take part while others may try to dominate
  • Teacher may lose control over the students and they may end up in quarrelling.


Cooperative Learning


  • Helps foster mutual responsibility
  • Supported by research as an effective technique
  • Students learn to be patient, less critical and more compassionate
  • Some students don’t work well
  • Loners find it hard to share answers
  • Aggressive students try to take over
  • Bright students tend to act superior


  • Students are usually interested in and challenged by games
  • Can provide opportunities for team member building skills
  • Easy to provide feedback
  • When used in direct relationship to a lesson objective, can provide a stimulating experience for all
  • Create in-group/out-group feelings
  • Demotivate those who are not competitive by nature
  • Discourage creativity if the format is very rigid and the focus is strongly on winning


  • Provide practice and experimenting with skills
  • Provide immediate feedback on actions and decision
  • Simplifies real-world complexities and focused on important attributes or characteristic
  • Cause deep emotional
  • Both setup and debriefing can be time consuming


  • Encourages active engagement
  • Promotes motivation
  • Promotes autonomy, responsibility, independence
  • Develops creativity and problem solving skills.
  • Tailors learning experiences
  • Creates cognitive overload
  • May result in potential misconceptions
  • Makes it difficult for teachers to detect problems and misconceptions
Problem Solving


  • Increase comprehension and retention
  • Involve higher learning
  • Develop responsibility
  • Limits the amount of content covered
  • Selecting, modifying and designing effective instructional problem can be time consuming
  • Requires teacher to have good management skills to coach students without giving the answer




Definition of cyberlearning

Cyberlearning reflects a growing national interest in managing the interactions of technology and education, especially with respect to the use of networking and information technologies  or the use of Web 2.0 networked computing and communication technologies to support learning.

For example of a classroom application, With Web 2.0 resources students can connect to share ideas, engage in inquiry, and search for additional information. Sometimes called learning communities, collaboration among students and teachers expends educational possibilities through electronic connectedness. Students can engage in critical thinking and problem solving through collaborating and communicating with others and by using curiosity and imagination to explore new ideas.


Cyberlearning literacy and how it may be used in the classroom.

Cyberlearning literacy represents the skills and knowledge regarding web 2.0 which will allow for success not only in the classroom, but in other settings as well. Teachers can improve cyberlearning literacy by providing students with Web 2.0 tools. This can be done by incorporating audio/video from the internet into lessons, podcasts, and encouraging students to surf the web on their own to look for websites that they find interesting or useful. Another web 2.0 tool that can improve cyberlearning literacy is the use of blogs and wikis. This encourages collaboration between users, and gives students opportunities to expand on ideas and also access to new online resources and means of communication. By exposing students to these new tools associated with the Web 2.0, the result will be a rise in cyberlearning literacy.


Three web 2.0 resources and how they might assist learning.

Blogs – contain text, visuals and link to websites, allow learners to share information with each other and with the teacher. Blog also can be a dialog with a group of people all interest in the same topic or issue. The structure of a blog is arranged so the most recent posting is first, allowing easy access to the most recent comments. When teaching student writing skills, a blog is a great way to offer them an audience to comment on their ideas or their writing. For example is wordpress.

Online Audio and Video – enable user to share video content via public repositories. It help teacher and student to source video content for knowledge acquisition or remixing purposes, as well as disseminate their own video. For example is youtube, where teacher can share educational video and link the URL at i-learn for student education knowledge.

Presentation tools – enable user to sequence multimodal content such as support or deliver an instructional narrative. Products are shareable via URL and public repositories. Presentation tools are useful for any situation where student or teacher is required to share or demonstrate their understanding. For example web 2.0 is Prezi, where we can design the slideshow as we like, change background and download the presentation when we want to use it offline.


Why social networking issues important for the classroom.

Social network are very useful in this era. It also has it pros and cons. Teacher must be aware with networking issues. For example cyberbully, this issue is important for teachers to be aware of when working with students because it is becoming more prominent in our society every day. It’s an issue that needs to be addressed because it’s causing both mental and physical harm to students, something that needs to be prevented at every opportunity by instructors. Thus, teacher needs to concern about these issues and overcome it before it become serious. Teacher also needs to give an advice to student of using social network about it pros and cons.



Principles of Effective Instruction

Eight principle of effective instruction

  • Develop mastery learning
  • Don’t dismiss knowledge as ‘lower order’
  • Expect excellence from all
  • Guide learning
  • Ensure that student
  • Put deliberate practice into lessons
  • Test to improve learning
  • Use questioning frequently and rigorously



The similarities and differences in the principle of effective technology and media utilization

The similarity in principle of effective technology and media utilization is both are for the 21st century student. Both need teacher guidance to teach them how to use technology and media. For the 21st century student, teacher will be expected to

The different is technology need teacher to guide how to use technology and teacher are expected to incorporate technology in classroom to show the student how it can enhance their learning.

While media need literacy skills need teacher to guide them how to access media, how to understand and analyse the content and how to create new media messages through text, television and video. In media utilization also need teacher to guide student to use media sources at wisely, safe and more productive.



3) What is text literacy

Text literacy is the ability to read, write competently and gather information to communicate using text.




Differentiate the terms of Instruction, Teaching, & Technology

1. instruction is a vital for education, as it transfer of learning from one person to another. it might be lesson which the teacher stand at the front of classroom and presents the information. it might be lesson or simple explanation. in technology, instruction is an order that given by computer program.

2. teaching process of transmit the knowledge or skills to student.

3. technology is a tool that can change the nature of learning. it is the extension of our human capability, in order to satisfy our needs. technology is organization for achievement of practical purpose.



The best Flash video frame dimensions

What are the best Flash video frame dimensions?

Video codecs perform best when the frame width and height use multiples of 16. While you can use any width and height in your encoding settings, non-optimal dimensions can result in poor image quality and reduced frame rate. For the best image quality and playback, you should always use width and height dimensions that use a multiple of 16 (best), 8 (better), or 4 (good). We would recommend that you refrain from using 4 or 8 multiples unless it is absolutely necessary. 

Note: Both the native encoding dimensions and the playback dimensions should be a multiple of 16. For example, if you encode your FLV file to use a frame dimension of 320 x 240, you should scale to a size such as 512 x 384. 

Refer to the following tables to pick dimensions for your layout.

4:3 aspect ratio sizes: 

Best (16) Better (8) Good (4)
640 x 480 608 x 456 624 x 468
576 x 432 544 x 408 592 x 444
512 x 384 480 x 360 560 x 420
448 x 336 416 x 312 528 x 396
384 x 288 352 x 264 496 x 372
320 x 240 288 x 216 464 x 348
256 x 192 224 x 168 432 x 324
192 x 144 160 x 120 400 x 300
128 x 96   368 x 276
    336 x 252
    304 x 228
    272 x 204
    240 x 180
    208 x 156
    176 x 132
    144 x 108
    112 x 84


16:9 aspect ratio sizes:

Best (16) Better (8) Good (4)
1280 x 720 1152 x 648 1216 x 684
1024 x 576 896 x 504 1088 x 612
768 x 432 640 x 360 960 x 540
512 x 288 384 x 216 832 x 468
256 x 144 128 x 72 704 x 396
    576 x 324
    448 x 252
    320 x 180
    192 x 108




Meaning of CMYK and RGB

CMYK is refer to C= Cyan (blue), M= Magenta, Y= yellow and K= black. Blue called as C and blac called as K because the potential of confusion with the words and abbreviations for blue and black, blue is called cyan and abbreviated C, and black is abbreviated K.

RGB is referring to Red, Green, and Blue. It is the colour system for computer monitors, video, etc. without going into the science, it is critical to understand that PMS and CMYK are for printed pieces and RGB is for computer applications such as website.


Differentiate the purpose of Channel, Colour Correction saturation and brightness 


Channel is the grayscale image of the same size as a colour image, made of just one of these primary colours. For instance, an image from a standard digital camera will have a red, green and blue channel. A grayscale image has just one channel. The grayscale images are store in different types of information which is:

  • Colour information channels are created automatically when open a new image. The image’s colour mode determines the number of colour channels created. For example, an RGB image has a channel for each colour (red, green, and blue) plus a composite channel used for editing the image.
  • Alpha channels store selections as grayscale images. It also can add alpha channels to create and store masks, which is can be manipulate or protect parts of an image.
  • Spot colour channels specify additional plates for printing with spot colour inks

An image can have up to 56 channels. All new channels have the same dimensions and number of pixels as the original image. The file size required for a channel depends on the pixel information in the channel. Certain file formats, including TIFF and Photoshop formats, compress channel information and can save space. The size of an uncompressed file, including alpha channels and layers, appears as the right-most value in the status bar at the bottom of the window when choose Document Sizes from the pop‑up menu.


Colour correction:

Colour correction refers to the process where every individual clip of a video footage is altered to match colour temperature of multiple shots to a consistent technical standard of appearance. It’s about balancing out colours, making the whites actually appear white, and the blacks actually appear black, and that everything in between is nice and even. The purpose is to match the video footage to a standard that would be an accurate portrayal of how it would look if viewed from the human eye.


Saturation is the amount of a hue used in defining a specific colour. When a colour is void of any saturation it is black, white, or a variance of grey. A colour that is fully saturated has the maximum amount of hue possible. Partial saturation creates a range of colours, from muted dull tones to rich vibrant colours.


Brightness refers to how much white (or black) is mixed in the colour while Saturation indicates the amount of grey in a colour. The purpose is to adjust the light and dark in images.



Point of Sale KIOSK

1)Have you ever used a point-of-sale kiosk? Where? Did it have multimedia? Compare the way it functioned to traditional shopping; did the kiosk complement, replace, or make traditional shopping unnecessary?

Yes, I have used it at TBS to buy LRT token. Yes it has multimedia, it have screen, appear menu, picture, text, show location where we want to go and the screen can be touch. Base on my experience in this LRT point of sale kiosk are better than traditional way which is the serves is faster than traditional way, and it works 24hour/day. Furthermore it doesn’t need a worker and it has many LRT point of sale machine. Compare to the traditional way, we need to line up and wait for our turn to buy a LRT token and some place only open a few counter base on their worker.

2)Find point-of-sale kiosk in your community. Describe its look and feel. Observe people using it and describe any problems or advantages you observe.

There are many point of sale in our community which is water machine, snack machine, money changed machine, and other. In my observation, people are use it base on what they need or interest. There also had problem and benefit. The benefit is it easy to use, available 24hours/ day, the process is faster than traditional way, save time and provide employee serves without increasing staff. The problem is when the machine out of money balance, the machine will not return the balance. Moreover, when the machine is in problem, the people need to line up to use traditional way.

Vector vs Bitmap

Bitmaps is composed of many tiny parts, called pixels, which are often many different colours. It is possible to edit each individual pixel. When resize the bitmap graphic, the image will lose the quality.


Vector graphic are created in graphic package and consist of shapes called objects. It is possible to edit each object separately. For example, change the shape, colour, size and position. Even the object in vector graphic is quite large; it doesn’t need a lot of space to save it in computer memory, when resize the vector, the image will not lose quality.



Bitmap vs vector graphics

  Bitmap graphic Vector graphic
Description Made up of pixels Made up of mathematically-defined objects
Size Take up more storage space and memory than vectors. The file has to store information about every single pixel in the image. Take up less storage space and memory than bitmaps. The file stores only the details of the objects, which do not require much memory
Resolution dependence Dependent on resolution of printer or display device Not dependent on resolution
Scalability Not scalable. Pixilation occurs when the image is over-enlarged Scalable
Editable elements Individual pixels Individual objects
Colour Can depict very detailed images, since each pixel represents a different colour. Colour depth can vary from just 2 colours (1-bit) to over 16 million (24-bit). Limited colour capability; cannot show gradients. Not suitable for photo-realistic images. Most suited to images with few colours.
Processing power Use less processing power than vectors Use more processing power than bitmaps
Common uses Photographs, web pages and more. Logos, architectural drafts (images with a limited colour palette), CNC designs, Engineering drawings and more.


In my opinion it is better use a vector than bitmap to create courseware, animation or anything that related.


Filename Extension and Intended Purpose

GIF – Graphic Interchange Format

GIF is the lossless image format that the most common format that found on the web. It has 256 maximum colour range and it ideal for making small icons, buttons, or other graphics that have large blocks of the same colour, but not for images that are required to be photographic quality.GIF support transparency, interlace, and can be animated which makes it a excellent format for putting images on a website.

JPG – Joint Photographic Experts Group

JPEG is a lossy file format that designed with photographic images. It capable of storing millions of colours making format for DSLR and capturing the proper hues and colour that we see in real life. JPEG support compression, but the more compresses the type of the images, the more loss of detail will occur. JPEG are suitable for photographic images.

PNG – Portable Network Graphics

PNG is the lossless format that designed specifically for the web. It supports animation. In the form of MNG files, transparency, and can be interlaced. It comes with to format which is PNG-8 and PNG-24. PNG-8 is similar to GIF files and has 265 maximum colour ranges. PNG-24 is similar colour range with JPEG, but they tend to have large file sizes. PNG support alpha – channels.

BMP – Bit-Map

The lossless BMP format is the Microsoft Windows standard for image files. The format are rarely compressed and make the images to be quite large. It has ability to go to 16.7 million colours. BMP not support animation, transparency, and cannot be interlaced.

TIFF- Tagged Image File Format

TIFF is the lossless image format and it considered as the best choice for photographic image quality. The main problem with this file format is that most applications do not compress the TIFF files, so they can be quite large. TIFF file format are use a big space file. This format not support animation, transparency, and cannot be interlaced.